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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / الموسوعة / أحداث / الثورة العرابية.. لن نُستعبد بعد اليوم

الثورة العرابية.. لن نُستعبد بعد اليوم

عرابي في مظاهرة عابدين – ويكيبيديا

عرابي في مظاهرة عابدين – ويكيبيديا

من بين آلاف العسكريين المصريين حفر الأميرالاي أحمد عرابي اسمه بحروف من ذهب في سجل التاريخ العسكري المصري بالثورة التي قادها في فترة 1879-1882 ضد الخديوي توفيق والتدخل الأجنبي في مصر والتي سميت آنذاك في أوساط الحكومة بـ”هوجة عرابي”.

الأحداث بدأت كرد فعل للضباط المصريين ضد قادتهم الأتراك الذين لا يريدون ترقيتهم إلى الرتب العالية، ومثّلت أكبر صدام بين القومية العربية المصرية والقومية التركية، وانطلقت شرارتها في عهد ناظر الجهادية الجراكسي عثمان رفقي باشا، فيما عُرف باسم “مؤامرة الجراكسة”، قام خلالها الضباط الشراكسة بتحريض العساكر على عدم إطاعة ضباطهم المصريين من ذوي الرتب العالية.

صعود عرابي

وبعد أن علم الأميرالاي أحمد عرابي بهذه المؤامرة، اجتمع في منزله مع مجموعة من الرفاق من قادة الجيش في ليلة 16 يناير 1881 وأخذوا يتناقشون فيما بينهم بشأن التصدي لما يقوم به ناظر الجهادية من اضطهاد للضباط المصريين، واتفقوا على اختيار أحمد عرابي نائباً عنهم، وقام عرابي بكتابة عريضة يطالب فيها بعزل ناظر الجهادية عثمان رفقي، ووقع عليها هو وكل من الأميرالاي علي فهمي وعبد العال حلمي.

وفي صباح 17 يناير توجهوا إلى مقر نظارة الداخلية وسلموا العريضة وطلبوا تقديمها إلى رياض باشا، وفي 31 يناير اجتمع مجلس الوزراء برئاسة الخديوي وقرر تكليف وزير الحربية بإلقاء القبض على الضباط الثلاثة وتقديمهم للمحاكمة العسكرية.

وفي 1 فبراير 1881 دعي وزير الحربية الضباط الثلاثة إلى قصر النيل وهناك تم القبض عليهم وتجريدهم من أسلحتهم وإيداعهم في قاعة السجن تمهيداً لمحاكمتهم، فلما علم الآلاي الأول بقشلاق عابدين بالقبض على الضباط الثلاثة أمر البكباشي محمد عبيد بسرعة التوجه إلى قصر النيل لتحرير زملائهم، وهجم جنود الآلاي على القصر، وهرب عثمان رفقي من أحد النوافذ، وقام البكباشي محمد عبيد بتحرير الضباط الثلاثة، وخرجوا جميعاً بقيادة أحمد عرابي وتوجهوا إلى ميدان عابدين فيما عرف بمظاهرة عابدين الأولى، وهنا وجد الخديوي نفسه مجبراً على قبول طلبات عرابي ورفاقه.

نتج عن تلك الواقعة موافقة الخديوي وهو مرغم على عزل عثمان رفقي وتعيين محمود سامي البارودي بدلا منه، وارتفاع شأن عرابي كزعيم وطني ممثل للإرادة المصرية ومناهض للنفوذ الأجنبي.

مظاهرة عابدين 1881

ونتيجة نمو الوعي القومي وسخط الشعب من سوء الأحوال الاقتصادية، ومعاملة حاشية الخديوي القاسية للمصريين.. وصلت الثورة العرابية إلى ذروتها في 9 سبتمبر 1881حيث تحركت جميع الوحدات العسكرية المتمركزة في القاهرة إلى ميدان عابدين مع أحمد عرابي، وشملت أيضا مشاركة الشعب المصري بكل طوائفه.

وصل أحمد عرابي أمام قصر عابدين وخرج الخديوي توفيق ومعه القنصل البريطاني والمراقب المالي البريطاني وسط حرسه الخاص، وأعلن أحمد عرابي مطالب الجيش والشعب المصري للخديوي توفيق، وتضمنت عزل وزارة رياض باشا، وإنشاء مجلس نواب على النسق الأوروبي، وزيادة عدد الجيش إلى 18 ألف جندي “طبقاً للفرمان السلطاني”.

وقال عرابي عبارته المشهورة: “لقد خلقنا الله أحرارا ولم يخلقنا تراثا أو عقار فوالله الذي لا إله إلا هو لن نورث ولن نستعبد بعد اليوم”.

استجاب الخديوي لمطالب الأمة، وعزل رياض باشا من رئاسة الوزارة، وعهد إلى شريف باشا بتشكيل الوزارة، وكان رجلا كريمًا مشهودًا له بالوطنية والاستقامة، فألف وزارته في 14 سبتمبر 1881م، وكان محمود سامي البارودي وزيرا للحربية بها، وسعى لوضع دستور للبلاد، ونجح في الانتهاء منه وعرضه على مجلس النواب الذي أقر معظم مواده.

عصف بهذا الجهد تدخل إنجلترا وفرنسا في شؤون البلاد بإرسال المذكرة المشتركة الأولى في 7 يناير 1882 والتي أعلنتا فيها مساندتهما للخديوي، وتأزمت الأمور، وتقدم شريف باشا باستقالته في 2 فبراير 1882 م بسبب قبول الخديوي لتلك المذكرة.

وزارة الثورة

تشكلت حكومة جديدة برئاسة محمود سامي البارودي، وشغل عرابي فيها منصب وزير الحربية، وقوبلت وزارة البارودي بالارتياح والقبول من مختلف الدوائر العسكرية والمدنية؛ لأنها كانت تحقيقًا لرغبة الأمة، ومعقد الآمال، وكانت عند حسن الظن، فأعلنت الدستور، وصدر المرسوم الخديوي به في 7 فبراير 1882 م. وسميت هذه الوزارة باسم وزارة الثورة لأنها حققت رضا الشعب والجيش كليهما.

وبقي عرابي في منصبه بعد أن أعلنت حامية الإسكندرية أنها لا تقبل بغير عرابي ناظرًا للجهادية، فاضطر الخديوي إلى إبقائه في منصبه، وتكليفه بحفظ الأمن في البلاد، غير أن البارودي سرعان ما أعلن استقالته اعتراضا على رفض الخديوي التصديق على كثير من قراراته.

وتجلى ذلك الأمر بعد محاولة بعض من الجنود الشراكسة اغتيال عرابي، وتشكيل محكمة عسكرية لمحاكمة المتهمين، فقضت بتجريدهم من رتبهم ونفيهم إلى أقاصي السودان، ولمّا رفع “البارودي” الحكم إلى الخديوي توفيق للتصديق عليه، رفض بتحريض من قنصلي إنجلترا وفرنسا.

وبعد تلك الواقعة، عرض البارودي الأمر على مجلس النظار، فقرر أنه ليس من حق الخديوي أن يرفض قرار المحكمة العسكرية العليا وفقًا للدستور، ثم عرضت الوزارة الأمر على مجلس النواب، فاجتمع أعضاؤه في منزل البارودي، وأعلنوا تضامنهم مع الوزارة، وطالبوا بضرورة خلع الخديوي ومحاكمته إذا استمر على دسائسه.

انتهزت إنجلترا وفرنسا هذا الخلاف، وحشدتا أسطوليهما في الإسكندرية، بحجة حماية الأجانب، وقدم قنصلاهما مذكرة في 25 مايو 1882م إلى الإسكندرية لمطالبتهم بإسقاط وزارة البارودي، ونفي عرابي إلى الخارج، وإبعاد علي فهمي وعبد العال حلمي إلى الأرياف.

وقد قابلت وزارة البارودي هذه المطالب بالرفض في الوقت الذي قبلها الخديوي توفيق بالموافقة، ولم يكن أمام البارودي سوى الاستقالة وكان من نتائجها، التفاف الشعب حول عرابى وتثبيته في منصبة كوزير للحربية بحاضنة جماهيرية.

قصف الإسكندرية

تمسُك المصريين بعرابي دعا إنجلترا وفرنسا إلى عقد مؤتمر الآستانة (عاصمة الدولة العثمانية) للنظر في المسألة المصرية وتطورها، ورفض السلطان العثماني في بادئ الأمر الاشتراك في هذا المؤتمر بحجة أن الحالة في مصر لا تستدعي التدخل في شؤونها، ولكن المؤتمر استمر في عقد جلساته.

تم عقد هذا المؤتمر في يوم 23 يونيو 1882، وأصدرت الدول المشاركة قرارا تعهدت فيه بعدم تدخلها في شؤون مصر ولكن اقترح مندوب إنجلترا أن تضاف إلى التعهد عبارة “إلا للضرورة القصوى”، ويُعد هذا الاقتراح إعلانا عن نوايا إنجلترا لاحتلال مصر.

أعلنت إنجلترا تشككها في قدرة الحكومة الجديدة على حفظ الأمن، وبدأت في اختلاق الأسباب للتحرش بالحكومة المصرية وإيجاد الذريعة لغزو مصر، فانتهزت فرصة تجديد قلاع الإسكندرية وتقوية استحكاماتها، وإمدادها بالرجال والسلاح، وأرسلت إلى قائد حامية الإسكندرية إنذارًا في 10 يوليو 1882 م بوقف عمليات التحصين والتجديد، وإنزال المدافع الموجودة بها خلال 24 ساعة وإلا فسيتم ضرب الإسكندرية بالمدافع.

ولما رفضت الحكومة المصرية هذه التهديدات، قام الأسطول الإنجليزي في اليوم التالي بضرب الإسكندرية وتدمير قلاعها وتدمير أجزاء من أحياء الإسكندرية، واضطر الكثير من الأهالي للهروب من المدينة، وواصل الأسطول القصف في اليوم التالي، فاضطرت المدينة إلى التسليم ورفع الأعلام البيضاء بعد تدمير أغلب المدينة، واضطر أحمد عرابي إلى التحرك بقواته إلى كفر الدوار، وإعادة تنظيم جيشه.

وبدلاً من أن يقاوم الخديوي المحتلين، استقبل في قصر الرمل بالإسكندرية الأميرال بوشامب سيمور قائد الأسطول البريطاني، وانحاز إلى الإنجليز، وجعل نفسه وسلطته الحكومية رهن تصرفهم حتى قبل أن يحتلوا الإسكندرية. فأثناء القتال، أرسل الإنجليز ثلة من جنودهم ذوي الجاكتات الزرقاء لحماية الخديوي أثناء انتقاله من قصر الرمل إلى قصر رأس التين عبر شوارع الإسكندرية المشتعلة. ثم أرسل الخديوي إلى أحمد عرابي في كفر الدوار يأمره بالكف عن الاستعدادات الحربية، ويحمّله تبعة ضرب الإسكندرية، ويأمره بالمثول لديه في قصر رأس التين؛ ليتلقى منه تعليماته.

رفض عرابي الانصياع للخديوي بعد موقفه من ضرب الإسكندرية، وبعث إلى جميع أنحاء البلاد ببرقيات يتهم فيها الخديوي بالانحياز إلى الإنجليز، ويحذر من اتباع أوامره، وأرسل إلى يعقوب سامي باشا وكيل نظارة الجهادية يطلب منه عقد جمعية وطنية ممثلة من أعيان البلاد وأمرائها وعلمائها للنظر في الموقف المتردي وما يجب عمله، فاجتمعت الجمعية في 17 يوليو 1882م، وكان عدد المجتمعين نحو أربعمائة، وأجمعوا على استمرار الاستعدادات الحربية ما دامت بوارج الإنجليز في السواحل، وجنودها يحتلون الإسكندرية.

وفي 22 يوليو 1882م عُقِد اجتماع في وزارة الداخلية، حضره نحو خمسمائة من الأعضاء، يتقدمهم شيخ الأزهر وقاضي قضاة مصر ومفتيها، ونقيب الأشراف، وبطريرك الأقباط، وحاخام اليهود والنواب والقضاة والمفتشون، ومديرو المديريات، وكبار الأعيان وكثير من العمد، فضلا عن ثلاثة من أمراء الأسرة الحاكمة.

في الاجتماع، أفتى ثلاثة من كبار شيوخ الأزهر، وهم محمد عليش وحسن العدوي والخلفاوي، بمروق الخديوي عن الدين؛ لانحيازه إلى الجيش المحارب لبلاده، وبعد مداولة الرأي أصدرت الجمعية قرارها بعدم عزل عرابي عن منصبه، ووقف أوامر الخديوي ونُظّاره وعدم تنفيذها؛ لخروجه عن الشرع الحنيف والقانون المنيف ولم يكتفوا بهذا بل جمعوا الرجال والأسلحة والخيول من قرى وعزب وكفور البلاد.

وقام العمدة محمد إمام الحوت عمدة الصالحية شرقية، والعمدة عبد الله بهادر عمدة جهينة جرجاوية، ببث الحماسة في الناس وجمع ما يستطيعون من الرجال والسلاح لدعم الدفاع عن البلاد، فقد قدم العمدة عبد الله بهادر نحوا من 600 مقاتل من رجال جهينة المعروفون بالبأس والشجاعة و140 فرس و74 بندقية والعديد من الأسلحة الأخرى وكميات كبيرة من الغلال.. وقدم العمدة محمد امام الحوت نحو من 40 مقاتل بعددهم وعتادهم وقدم سليمان زكى حكيم من أعيان مركز طوخ 41 فرس وأحمد حسنى مأمور مركز ميت غمر قدم 33 بندقية.

معركة كفر الدوار

وكان رد فعل الخديوي على هذا القرار هو عزل عرابي من منصبه، وتعيين عمر لطفي محافظ الإسكندرية بدلا منه، ولكن عرابي لم يمتثل للقرار، واستمر في عمل الاستعدادات في كفر الدوار لمقاومة الإنجليز، ونجح بالفعل في الانتصار في أولى جولاتها.

وفي 28 أغسطس 1882، أثناء تقدم الجيش البريطاني غربا في محافظة الإسماعيلية بقيادة الجنرال جراهام حوصر من قبل الأهالي العزُل، فطلب الإمداد بمزيد من الذخيرة في الساعة 4:30 عصرا، فوصلته الساعة 8:45 مساء مما مكنه من القيام بمذبحة كبيرة بين الأهالي.

استمر جيش الإنجليز في التقدم حتى وصل إلى التل الكبير بمحافظة الشرقية، وحدثت المعركة في 13 سبتمبر 1882م الساعة 1:30 صباحا واستغرقت أقل من 30 دقيقة بسبب تفشي العشى الليلي بشكل وبائي بين الجنود المصريين، حيث فاجأ الإنجليز القوات المصرية المتمركزة في مواقعها منذ أيام والتي كانت نائمة وقت الهجوم. وأُلقي القبض على أحمد عرابي الذي رفض الفرار من المعركة.

واصلت القوات البريطانية تقدمها السريع إلى الزقازيق حيث أعادت تجمعها ظهر ذلك اليوم، ثم استقلت القطار سكك حديد مصر إلى القاهرة التي استسلمت حاميتها بقيادة خنفس باشا قائد قلعة صلاح الدين عصر اليوم نفسه.. وكان ذلك بداية الاحتلال البريطاني لمصر الذي دام 74 عاماً.

محاكمة الثوار

بعد دخول الإنجليز مدينة القاهرة في 14 سبتمبر 1882، ووصول الخديوي لقصر عابدين في 25 سبتمبر 1882، عُقدت محاكمة لأحمد عرابي وبعض قادة الجيش في المعركة وبعض العلماء والأعيان، ولقد احتجز أحمد عرابي في ثكنات العباسية مع نائبهِ طلبة باشا حتى انعقدت محاكمته في 3 ديسمبر 1882 والتي قضت بإعدامه، وخفف الحكم بعد ذلك مباشرة، بناء على اتفاق مسبق بين سلطة الاحتلال البريطاني والقضاة المصريين، إلى النفي مدى الحياة إلى جزيرة سرنديب (جزيرة سيلان).

وانتقل السفير البريطاني لدى الباب العالي، لورد دوفرن، إلى القاهرة كأول مندوب سامي، وأشرف على محاكمة أحمد عرابي، ونُفى أحمد عرابي وزملاؤه عبد الله النديم ومحمود سامي البارودي إلى جزيرة سريلانكا (سيلان سابقاً) حيث استقروا بمدينة كولومبو.

أما من ساندوا عرابي أو قاتلوا معه أو حرضوا الجماهير على القتال من العلماء (مثل الشيخ محمد عبده) والعُمد والأعيان فقد كان الحكم أولا بقتل من أسموهم برؤوس الفتنة من هؤلاء، وعزل الباقين، ثم خفف الحكم لعزل الجميع، فعُزلوا من مناصبهم وجردوا من نياشينهم وأوسمتهم.

عاش عرابي في المنفى وحيدًا، وعاد بعد 20 عام من نفيه بسبب شدة مرضه، كما عاد محمود سامي البارودي بعد 18 عامًا، لاقتراب وفاته وإصابته بالعمى.

رغم فشل الثورة العرابية في تحقيق أهدافها الرئيسة إلا أنها فتحت أعين المصريين على ما يدور في قصر الخديوية من تنسيق وتعاون مع الإنجليز والتهميش المتعمد للمصريين، وحرّكت هممهم نحو المطالبة بالحقوق الأساسية في الحرية والارتقاء إلى المناصب القيادية العليا في بلدهم ثم القيام بواجب الدفاع عن الوطن من المحتل الأجنبي.

 

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