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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / الموسوعة / شخصيات / عائشة عبد الرحمن.. بنت الشاطئ وأم الإرادة والإبداع

عائشة عبد الرحمن.. بنت الشاطئ وأم الإرادة والإبداع

بنت الشاطئ.. الاسم الذي اختارته عائشة لمقالاتها – ويكيبيديا

في منتصف نهار يوم الرابع عشر من سبتمبر عام 1994م، أعلن حفل جائزة الملك فيصل للأدب العربي فوز كاتبة عرفها الجمهور العربي باسمها المستعار “بنت الشاطئ “.. تعلقت الأعين بالنساء الحاضرات بحثا عمن ستتقدم لنيل جائزتها، كاشفة بذلك عن ملامح أبرز من شخصيتها.. عائشة محمد علي عبد الرحمن.

كانت عائشة تكتب مقالاتها باسم مستعار في مجتمع لم يكن مقبولا بعد لديه أن تتصدر امرأة لطرح الأفكار والآراء بين الرجال؛ فاختارت لقب بنت الشاطئ لأنه كان ينتمي إلى حياتها الأولى على شواطئ دمياط والتي ولدت بها، وحتى توثق العلاقة بينها وبين القراء وبين مقالاتها والتي كانت تكتبها في جريدة الأهرام.

شخصيتها ونشأتها

عائشة عبد الرحمن (1912-1998 م)، مفكرة وكاتبة مصرية، وأستاذة جامعية وباحثة، وهي أول امرأة تحاضر بالأزهر الشريف، ومن أوليات من اشتغلن بالصحافة في مصر وبالخصوص في جريدة الأهرام، وهي أول امرأة عربية تنال جائزة الملك فيصل في الآداب والدراسات الإسلامية.

ولدت في مدينة دمياط بشمال دلتا مصر في منتصف نوفمبر عام 1912 م وكان والدها مدرسا بالمعهد الديني بدمياط، وجدُّها لأمها كان شيخا بالأزهر الشريف، وقد تلقت تعليمها الأولى في كُتاب القرية فحفظت القرآن الكريم ثم أرادت الالتحاق بالمدرسة عندما كانت في السابعة من العمر؛ ولكن رُفض ذلك؛ فتلقت تعليمها بالمنزل وقد بدأ يظهر تفوقها ونبوغها في تلك المرحلة عندما كانت تتفوق على قريناتها في الامتحانات بالرغم من أنها كانت تدرس بالمنزل وقريناتها بالمدرسة.

التحقت بجامعة القاهرة لتتخرج في كلية الآداب قسم اللغة العربية 1939 م وكان ذلك بمساعدة أمها، فأبوها كان يأبى ذهابها للجامعة، وقد ألفت كتابًا بعنوان الريف المصري في عامها الثاني بالجامعة، ثم نالت الماجستير بمرتبة الشرف الأولى عام 1941 م.

تزوجت أستاذها بالجامعة الأستاذ أمين الخولي صاحب الصالون الأدبي والفكري الشهير بمدرسة الأمناء، وأنجبت منه ثلاثة أبناء وهي واصلت مسيرتها العلمية حتى نالت رسالة الدكتوراه عام 1950 م وناقشها عميد الأدب العربي د. طه حسين.

إسهامها الفكري والمعرفي

كانت بنت الشاطئ كاتبة ومفكرة وأستاذة وباحثة ونموذجًا للمرأة المسلمة التي حررت نفسها بنفسها بالإسلام، فمن طفلة صغيرة على شاطئ النيل في دمياط إلى أستاذ للتفسير والدراسات العليا في كلية الشريعة بجامعة القرويين في المغرب، وأستاذ كرسي اللغة العربية وآدابها في جامعة عين شمس بمصر، وأستاذ زائر لجامعات أم درمان 1967 م والخرطوم، والجزائر 1968 م، وبيروت 1972 م، وجامعة الإمارات 1981 م وكلية التربية للبنات في الرياض 1975- 1983 م.

تدرجت في المناصب الأكاديمية إلى أن أصبحت أستاذاً للتفسير والدراسات العليا بكلية الشريعة بجامعة القرويين بالمغرب، حيث قامت بالتدريس هناك ما يقارب العشرين عامًا. ساهمت في تخريج أجيال من العلماء والمفكرين من تسع دول عربية قامت بالتدريس بها. خرجت كذلك مبكرًا بفكرها وقلمها إلى المجال العام؛ وبدأت النشر منذ كان سنها 18 سنة في مجلة النهضة النسائية، وبعدها بعامين بدأت الكتابة في جريدة الأهرام فكانت ثاني امرأة تكتب بها بعد الأديبة مي زيادة، فكان لها مقال طويل أسبوعي، وكان آخر مقالاتها ما نشر بالأهرام يوم 26 نوفمبر 1998.

وكان لها مواقف فكرية شهيرة، واتخذت مواقف حاسمة دفاعًا عن الإسلام، فخلّفت وراءها سجلاً مشرفًا من السجالات الفكرية التي خاضتها بقوة؛ وكان أبرزها موقفها ضد التفسير العصري للقرآن الكريم ذودًا عن التراث، ودعمها لتعليم المرأة واحترامها بمنطق إسلامي وحجة فقهية أصولية دون طنطنة نسوية، وموقفها الشهير من البهائية وكتابتها عن علاقة البهائية بالصهيونية العالمية.

مؤلفاتها

أبرز مؤلفاتها هي: التفسير البياني للقرآن الكريم، والقرآن وقضايا الإنسان، وتراجم سيدات بيت النبوة، وكذا تحقيق الكثير من النصوص والوثائق والمخطوطات، ولها دراسات لغوية وأدبية وتاريخية أبرزها: نص رسالة الغفران للمعري، والخنساء الشاعرة العربية الأولى، ومقدمة في المنهج، وقيم جديدة للأدب العربي، ولها أعمال أدبية وروائية أشهرها: على الجسر.. سيرة ذاتية، سجلت فيه طرفا من سيرتها الذاتية، وكتبته بعد وفاة زوجها أمين الخولي بأسلوبها الأدبي.

جوائزها

حصلت الدكتورة عائشة على الكثير من الجوائز منها جائزة الحكومة المصرية في الدراسات الاجتماعية، والريف المصري عام 1956م، كما حصلت أيضا على جائزة الدولة التقديرية للأدب في مصر عام 1978م، ووسام الكفاءة الفكرية من المملكة المغربية، وجائزة الأدب من الكويت عام 1988م، وفازت أيضا بجائزة الملك فيصل للأدب العربي مناصفة مع الدكتورة وداد القاضي عام 1994م.

كما منحتها العديد من المؤسسات الإسلامية عضوية لم تمنحها لغيرها من النساء مثل مجمع البحوث الإسلامية بالقاهرة، والمجالس القومية المتخصصة، وأيضاً أَطلق اسمها على الكثير من المدارس وقاعات المحاضرات في العديد من الدول العربية.

توفيت عائشة عبد الرحمن عن عمر يناهز 86 عامًا في يوم الثلاثاء أول ديسمبر 1998 م، تاركة وراءها صوتًا عبِقًا نديًا، ونموذجًا نادرًا وفريدًا للمرأة المسلمة التي حررت نفسها بتعاليم الإسلام، وكان لها الدور الكبير في إخراج المرأة المصرية من البيت إلى الجامعة والمجتمع.

 

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