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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / فنون وآداب / أفلام / فيلم الكرنك.. نهش الحرية في زنازين عبد الناصر

فيلم الكرنك.. نهش الحرية في زنازين عبد الناصر

أحد الكادرات الشهيرة بفيلم الكرنك – مواقع التواصل
أحد الكادرات الشهيرة بفيلم الكرنك – مواقع التواصل

بجرأة غير مسبوقة، ولا متبوعة، في تصوير التعذيب للمعارضين سياسيا في حقبة من أشد الحقب سوادا في تاريخ مصر الحديث، احتل فيلم “الكرنك” مكانا بارزا بقمة أفلام السينما المصرية على مدار تاريخها، منذ إصداره في العام 1975 للكاتب الكبير نجيب محفوظ، وبطولة سعاد حسني وكمال الشناوي ونور الشريف وفريد شوقي ويونس شلبي ومحمد صبحي، وإخراج علي بدرخان.

يعود الفيلم بأحداثه إلى حقبة الستينات، حيث يتعرض لحياة مجموعة من الطلبة الجامعيين، وهم إسماعيل الشيخ وزينب دياب وحمادة حلمي، وثلاثتهم دائمي التردد على مقهى شهير يدعى الكرنك، ولكن تتغير مسارات حيواتهم للأبد بعد تعرضهم للاعتقال والتعذيب ضمن الممارسات القمعية التي مارستها أجهزة المخابرات وقتئذ على شريحة عريضة من المثقفين والجامعيين.

 

قصة الفيلم

الفيلم مأخوذ عن قصة الكاتب الكبير نجيب محفوظ “الكرنك” و هي قصة قصيرة الحجم سجل فيها نجيب محفوظ اعتراضه على القمع السياسي في عهد عبد الناصر.

يحكي الفيلم عن حالة الاستبداد السياسي والفكري الذي انتهجه نظام الحكم المصري في عهد الرئيس جمال عبد الناصر، حيث يتناول قصة مجموعة من الشباب الجامعي الذي يتم اعتقاله دون جريمة بسبب التقائهم في مقهى “الكرنك” الذي عرف عنه تجمع بعض المفكرين فيه وتعرضهم أحيانا لنقد الثورة.

وفي المعتقل يتم تعذيبهم واجبارهم على الاعتراف بجرائم لم يرتكبوها، ويتم إجبار البعض منهم على العمل كجواسيس لصالح النظام وأجهزة الأمن داخل الجامعة وكتابة تقارير عن أي نشاط أو فكر معارض داخل أسوار الجامعة.

وينتهي الفيلم بقيام ثورة التصحيح في بداية عهد الرئيس أنور السادات وصدور قرار بالإفراج عن المعتقلين السياسيين وإذا بالضابط الكبير الذي كان يقوم بإصدار أوامر التعذيب وانتزاع الاعترافات الملفقة يدخل هو نفسه المعتقل!

 

أبطال العمل

يضم الفيلم نخبة كبيرة جدا من الفنانين الكبار ومجموعة من الشباب الذين اشتهروا بعد ذلك وأصبحوا من نجوم الصف الأول.

من أبطال الفيلم: سعاد حسني، وكمال الشناوي، ونور الشريف، ومحمد صبحي، وفريد شوقي، وتحية كاريوكا، ويونس شلبي، وشويكار، وعماد حمدي، وصلاح ذو الفقار، وحسن حسني، ومصطفى متولي، وعبد العزيز مخيون، ومحمد توفيق، وأحمد بدير، وأسامة عباس، وفايز حلاوة.

 

تجسيد واقعي

يرى كثير من المتابعين أن شخصية خالد صفوان (كمال الشناوي) رجل الأمن المستبد كانت تجسيدًا لشخصية صلاح نصر مدير المخابرات العامة المصرية السابق والذي تمت محاكمته في قضية انحراف المخابرات الشهيرة في أعقاب نكسة 67، ونهاية الفيلم بدخول خالد صفوان المعتقل هو أيضا مع حدث مع صلاح نصر بعد إدانته في قضية انحراف المخابرات ومحاولة الانقلاب.

 

أسئلة محورية

صدور مثل ذلك العمل في دولة مثل مصر، وفي ظل نظام السادات المحسوب عمليا ضمن “دولة العسكر” يثير أسئلة مهمة ليس أقلها: هل كان الفيلم تجسيدا لحقبة عبد الناصر، أم تجميلا لحقبة السادات؟

الإجابة على ذلك السؤال تلزمنا بالعودة إلى كواليس صدور ذلك العمل، والذي جاء بعد انتصار أكتوبر/تشرين الأول 1973، حين كان الرئيس السادات يستعد لبدء حقبة جديدة بعد أعوام من الناصرية.

ومن أجل ذلك، أتاح نظام السادات المساحة للعديد من الأعمال الفنية والأدبية التي سعت إلى تقديم الرواية الأخرى والمسكوت عنها لما كان يحدث خلف الأبواب المؤصدة خلال الحقبة الناصرية.

وكانت السينما رأس الحربة في تقديم تلك الرواية، وكان أحد ما أنتجته فيلم “الكرنك” عام 1975، ليثير الفيلم عاصمة من الجدل والتقييمات المتضاربة، بين من اعتبره وثيقة تاريخية ضد عهد عبد الناصر، وبين من اعتبره تجميلا لحقبة السادات لأهداف سياسية.

 

ردود الأفعال

رغم أن الكرنك لم ينل من نظام السادات، فإن وزير الثقافة آنذاك يوسف السباعي أصدر قرارا بمنع عرضه، الأمر الذي دفع منتجه ممدوح الليثي إلى مقابلة أنور السادات شخصيا الذي شاهده ووافق عليه.

ويشير مخرج الفيلم علي بدرخان إلى أن “الكرنك” عرض بعد “تنازل” قدمه المنتج بتغيير في أحد المشاهد الأخيرة يتضمن الإفراج عن السجناء السياسيين بأمر من عبد الناصر، فجرى التعديل بأن خرجوا بأمر من السادات.

كما رفع “صلاح نصر” رجل المخابرات القوي في عهد “عبد الناصر” دعوى قضائية ضد الفيلم يطالب فيها بمنع عرضه، باعتباره يتعرض له ويقدمه في صورة “خالد صفوان” الفاسد ورفضت المحكمة دعواه وحكمت بمواصلة عرض الفيلم.

أما وزير الثقافة وقتها “يوسف السباعي” فقد اعترض على وجود شخصية “حلمي” المثقف اليساري التي أداها الفنان “محمد صبحي” وطلب كذلك من صناع الفيلم توضيح أن نظام “السادات” ليس له يد في مسألة التعذيب الذي كان يحدث بالسجون في الستينات.

في النهاية، يمثل فيلم “الكرنك” وثيقة عبرت بوضوح عن مدى توحش أنظمة الرأي الواحد واعتمادها القمع وسيلة لإسكات ذوي الرأي، وهو الذي منح العمل مدى جغرافيا أوسع، واستمرار متواصل بين الأجيال اللاحقة بسبب بقاء الحالة الحقوقية التي خرج الفيلم للتعبير عنها كما هي حتى وقت كتابة تلك السطور.

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