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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / الموسوعة / هيئات / وكالة الأونروا.. منصة أممية لغوث وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين

وكالة الأونروا.. منصة أممية لغوث وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين

 

خلّفت حرب 1948 بين العرب وإسرائيل أزمة لاجئين غير مسبوقة، بسبب التغول الكبير الذي التزمته إسرائيل منذ نهاية تلك الحرب التي جاءت كرد فعل على إعلان قيامها كدولة مستقلة على الأراضي العربية المحتلة.. وفي ظل تلك الظروف أسست الأمم المتحدة منظمة تسمى “هيئة الأمم المتحدة لإغاثة اللاجئين الفلسطينيين” في نوفمبر/ تشرين الثاني 1948.

وعلى الرغم من أن الهيئة لا تهدف لحل مشكلة اللاجئين أو استعادة حقوقهم بشكل نهائي، إلا أنها ظلت واحدة من أكثر المبادرات الفاعلة لتقديم المعونة للاجئين الفلسطينيين وتنسيق الخدمات التي تقدم لهم من طرف المنظمات غير الحكومية وبعض منظمات الأمم المتحدة الأخرى.

وتشمل مهام الأونروا تنفيذ برامج إغاثة وتشغيل مباشرة بالتعاون مع الحكومات المحلية، والتشاور مع الحكومات المعنية بخصوص تنفيذ مشاريع الإغاثة والتشغيل والتخطيط استعدادا للوقت الذي يستغنى فيه عن هذه الخدمات.

التأسيس وبداية العمل

في 8 ديسمبر/ كانون أول 1949 وبموجب قرار الجمعية العامة رقم 302 تأسست وكالة الأمم المتحدة لغوث وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين في الشرق الأدنى (الأونروا) لتعمل كوكالة مخصصة ومؤقتة مقرها الرئيس في فيينا وعمّان، على أن تجدد ولايتها كل ثلاث سنوات لغاية إيجاد حل عادل للقضية الفلسطينية.

 

بدأت الأونروا عملياتها يوم الأول من مايو/ أيار 1950، وتولت مهام هيئة الإغاثة التي تم تأسيسها من قبل وتسلّمت سجلات اللاجئين الفلسطينيين من اللجنة الدولية للصليب الأحمر.

 

تمويل الأونروا وإنفاقها

تمول الأونروا من تبرعات طوعية من الدول المانحة. وأكبر المانحين للأونروا هي المفوضية الأوروبية والمملكة المتحدة والسويد ودول أخرى مثل دول الخليج العربية والدول الإسكندنافية واليابان وكندا.

وتغطي خدمات الأونروا اللاجئين الفلسطينيين المقيمين في مناطق عملياتها الخمس وهي الضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة ولبنان والأردن وسوريا، والبالغ عددهم 3.8 ملايين لاجئ حسب أرقام عام 2001.

أوجه إنفاق أموال الأونروا تتوزع بنسبة 54% لبرامج التعليم، و18% لبرامج الصحة، و18% للخدمات المشتركة والخدمات التشغيلية، و10% لبرامج الإغاثة والخدمات الاجتماعية.

 

اللاجئ الفلسطيني حسب الأونروا

عرفت الأونروا اللاجئ الفلسطيني بالشخص الذي كان يقيم في فلسطين خلال الفترة من أول يونيو/ حزيران 1946 حتى 15 مايو/ أيار 1948 والذي فقد بيته ومورد رزقه نتيجة حرب 1948. وعليه فإن اللاجئين الفلسطينيين الذين يحق لهم تلقي المساعدات من الأونروا هم الذين ينطبق عليهم التعريف أعلاه إضافة إلى أبنائهم.

الفرق بين الأونروا والمفوضية السامية

تقتصر مسؤولية الأونروا على توفير خدمات لمجموعة واحدة من اللاجئين وهم الفلسطينيون المقيمون في مناطق عملياتها، في حين أن المفوضية السامية للأمم المتحدة لشؤون اللاجئين مسؤولة عن اللاجئين في أنحاء العالم. والأونروا مكلفة بتقديم مساعدات إنسانية للاجئين الفلسطينيين، في حين أن المفوضية السامية مكلفة بتوفير حماية دولية للاجئين المشمولين بولايتها وإيجاد حلول دائمة لمشكلتهم بمساعدة الحكومات.

الحرب الأميركية على الوكالة

وفي أغسطس 2018، أعلنت وزارة الخارجية الأمريكية قطع تمويل الولايات المتحدة لوكالة الأمم المتحدة لإغاثة وتشغيل اللاجئين الفلسطينيين (الأونروا)، بعد أن كانت هي أكبر جهة تمويل لها.

وقالت المتحدثة باسم الخارجية الأميركية هيذر ناورت في بيان أن الإدارة الأمريكية “راجعت المسألة بحرص وخلصت إلى أن الولايات المتحدة لن تقدم مساهمات إضافية للأونروا”. واعتبرت أن نموذج عمل الوكالة وإدارة شؤونها المالية “عملية معيبة بشكل لا يمكن إصلاحه”.

مجلة “فورين بوليسي” نقلت عن مصادر مطلعة أن الرئيس الأميركي دونالد ترمب اتخذ قرار قطع التمويل بعد ضغط من مستشاره وصهره اليهودي جاريد كوشنر ووزير الخارجية مايك بومبيو.

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