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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / فنون وآداب / قصص وروايات / غربة الياسمين.. هل تؤمن أوروبا بالتنوع حقًا؟!

غربة الياسمين.. هل تؤمن أوروبا بالتنوع حقًا؟!

عمار الصافي – كاتب أكاديمي وباحث

هل يمكن أن تحتضن أوروبا الغرباء حقًا؟ تحتضنهم كما هم، بمختلف ثقافاتهم ومبادئهم، دون شرط الانخلاع الكامل عن هوياتهم، أو المساومة على ثوابتهم، أو كما يسميه الأوروبيون بـ”الاندماج”.. سؤال تبحثه صفحات رواية “غربة الياسمين” الـ  407، وهي الرواية الثالثة للكاتبة التونسية خولة حمدي، المنشورة لدى دار كيان المصرية عام 2015.

تتناول الكاتبة في روايتها حياة المغتربين من شمال أفريقيا في فرنسا، وما يعانونه هناك في الدفاع عن قناعاتهم ورموزهم الإسلامية، وكان أكثر اهتمامها بأصحاب الكفاءات الذين غادروا بلدانهم الأصلية بحثاً عن فرصة أفضل؛ لكنهم اصطدموا بالمساومة على ثوابتهم مقابل السماح لهم بالبقاء في المجتمع الأبيض.

 

  • تعريف بالكاتبة

خولة حمدي، كاتبة تونسية من مواليد 1984 بتونس العاصمة أستاذة جامعية في تقنية المعلومات بجامعة الملك سعود بالرياض، متحصلة على شهادة في الهندسة الصناعية والماجستير من مدرسة “المناجم” في مدينة سانت إتيان الفرنسية سنة 2008، ومتحصلة على الدكتوراه في بحوث العمليات (أحد فروع الرياضيات التطبيقية) من جامعة التكنولوجيا بمدينة تروا بفرنسا سنة 2011.

أصدرت روايتها الأولى “أين المفر” عام 2011، ثم روايتها الثانية “في قلبي أنثى عبرية” سنة 2012 وهي مستوحاة من قصة حقيقية ليهودية تونسية دخلت الإسلام بعد تأثرها بشخصية طفلة مسلمة يتيمة الأبوين صمدت في وجه الاحتلال بشجاعة، وبشخصية شاب لبناني مقاوم ترك بصمة في حياتها.

وبعدها، تأتي رواية “غربة الياسمين” التي تميزت بإبداعها وأسلوب كتابتها الأنيق والذي يحمل في طياته العديد من القضايا العربية المعاصرة كسوء الفهم للإسلام والحجاب وعنصرية المجتمع الغربي تجاههما.

  • مع الرواية

تبدأ الرواية كعادة الكاتبة في نهجها الدفاعي عن الإسلام وطرد الكلمات التي يطلقها الغرب عليهن والتي تشكل كابوساً كبيراً، وتركز على رفض كلمة الإرهاب التي يربطها الغرب بالإسلام، وتحاول أن تبيّن مقدار المعاناة الكبيرة التي يتعرض لها المسلمون في بلاد الغربة.

كما تتعرض الرواية لتفاصيل أزمة رفض بلاد الغرب للحجاب والمعاناة التي تلاقيها الفتيات المحجبات وخصوصاً في فرنسا التي تعتبر رمزاً للاضطهاد والعنصرية ضد الحجاب، وكيف أن الفرنسيين يلصقون كلمة إرهاب بكل مسلم موجود فيها.

وتثير الكاتبة من خلال أحداث روايتها تساؤلاً مهمًا، وهو: متى ستتوقف نظرة الغرب العنصرية للإسلام والمسلمين؟ وإلى متى سيعتبرون أن كل مسلم هو إرهابي؟ وتسرد الكاتبة هذه القضايا بلغة سلسة وحبكة مثيرة تربط فيها المصادفات والأحداث.

 

  • الشخصيات

ضمت الرواية عدة شخصيات رئيسية، أبرزها: رنيم  شاكر: فتاة مصرية تمتهن المحاماة، وياسمين: شابة تونسية اتجهت إلى فرنسا لتحضير دكتوراه في علم الاجتماع، وعمر الرشيدي: شاب مغربي يعمل باحثا في مجال الطاقة في إحدى شركات الكيميائيات، وسامي كلود  (كمال عبد القادر): أبو ياسمين، وهو بروفيسور باحث في مجال الطاقة، والخالة زهور: قريبة ياسمين، تسكن هي وعائلتها في باريس، وهيثم: ابن الخالة زهور، وهو مهندس يعمل في شركة متخصصة في علوم الحاسوب، وميساء: أخت هيثم، وإيلين: زوجة أب ياسمين، وباتريك كلود: زميل ياسمين في العمل وأخ إيلين.

وهناك شخصيات أخرى ثانوية مثل فاطمة: أم ياسمين، ولورا: صديقة هيثم، اعتنقت الإسلام بمساعدته، وكريستوف نوارو وصامويل بلير: زملاء عمر في قسم الأبحاث في شركة الكيميائيات، وميشال روسو: صديق رنيم السابق ورئيسها في مكتب المحاماة بمرسيليا، وجورج برنار: رئيس رنيم في مكتب المحاماة بباريس، وكارولين: زميلة عمر في العمل، ودافيد كيلير: رئيس ياسمين في العمل، ونادر: لص قبض عليه عمر وحاول مساعدته بعدما عرف ظروفه، ودانيال بروكس:  مدير قسم الأبحاث في شركة الكيميائيات، وفيفيان: زميلة رنيم، وروزلين: امرأة أربعينية تعمل في شركة دافيد وتحاول الانتحار، وريان وسارة: أخوا ياسمين، ووليد الراجحي: زميل عمر في العمل، وغوستاف بلامر: حارس شركة الكيميائيات، وعبد الحميد: زوج الخالة زهور، وإيريك جاربيال: قائد الفرقة التي داهمت شقة عمر.

 

  • القالب الفني والفكري

تدور أحداث الرواية في ثلاث مدن فرنسية، في البداية تبدأ الأحداث في مرسيليا وليون لتنتقل فيما بعد إلى باريس.  ويمكن أن نختزل الأبطال الرئيسيين للرواية في رنيم وياسمين وعمر، وكلهم عرب ومسلمون اختاروا أن يتجهوا لفرنسا إما للدراسة أو للعمل. في البداية تركز الكاتبة على كل شخصية على حدة لتصف ملامحها وظروفها ومحيطها وخلفيتها الفكرية والأسباب التي دفعتها للهجرة وتحدياتها في المجتمع الجديد. ثم تتوالى الأحداث حتى تتقاطع سبلهم في وسط الرواية وتتشابك مصائرهم.

ومن خلال هذه الرواية الرومانسية والبوليسية البسيطة تحاول الكاتبة بالأساس تسليط الضوء على واقع العرب والمسلمين في بلاد الغرب، وكيفية تفاعلهم مع الظروف والتحديات التي يواجهونها، فمنهم من يستسلم للاندماج المطلق ويذوب في قيم ومبادئ المجتمع المضيف حتى يستطيع العيش بسلام، ومنهم من يعض بالنواجذ على قيمه ويصبر على رفض المجتمع له كما هو، وآخرون يمسكون العصا من المنتصف فلا هم يستطيعون التخلي تماما عن هويتهم العربية المسلمة ولا هم يستطيعون تطبيق دينهم في خضم المغريات التي يجدونها في البلاد الغربية، أما فئة أخرى فتتجه للعنف والجريمة لأن المجتمع لا يعترف بوجودها أصلا ويصر على تجاهلها وتهميشها.

وتتطرق الكاتبة أيضا إلى قضية الإرهاب، التي أصبحت تهمة يسهل إلصاقها بأي مسلم يحترم دينه ويطبقه في مجتمع يؤمن بالانفتاح والحرية المطلقة، ولم تنس أن تخصص مساحة ولو صغيرة لحديثي الإسلام الذين ما زالوا يكتشفون تعاليم الدين، وذلك من خلال شخصية لورا، مع أنه مثال لا يعبر عن كل من يعتنق الإسلام حديثًا.

 

  • نقد الرواية

يظهر في الرواية تحيز الكاتبة المبدئي للموقف الإسلامي منذ الصفحة الأولى، بينما كان الأفضل من ناحية الموضوعية أن تجعل ذلك التحيز يأتي كنتيجة لمقدمات تبرزها في موضوعها، كما أن أبطال الرواية يتمتعون بمثالية كبيرة قد يكون مبالغا فيها أحيانًا، وربما أرادت الكاتبة من خلال هذا أن تعرض صورة الإسلام الحقيقية في شخوصهم، لكنه يجافي مبدأ أن الكاتب يجب أن يكون حيادياً وموضوعياً عند طرحه لأفكاره.

أيضا تعاني الرواية من كمية التقاطعات بين الشخصيات، حيث يخيل للقارئ أن فرنسا لا تضم إلا العائلات الثلاث التي تدور حولها أحداث القصة، فعمر وأبو ياسمين يعملان في نفس مجال البحث، وياسمين تؤجر البيت من رنيم التي هي بدورها تدافع عن عمر، وباتريك زميل ياسمين في الشركة ليس إلا أخو زوجة أبيها، ونادر يحبس في نفس زنزانة عمر!

وبالرغم من ذلك، إلا أن الكاتبة حاولت تقديم أدب نظيف ورومانسية واقعية، فذكرت العديد من قصص الحب التي يظهر فيها انعكاس كبير للأدوار، كما حاولت معالجة قضايا تهم الشباب المسلم في عصرنا الحالي بأسلوب رائع يحسن الغوص في وصف ردة فعل الفرنسيين على كل ما يخص الإسلام والمسلمين وكيفية التعامل معهم.

خولة حمدي في هذه الرواية تقدم فنًا هادفًا يعبر عن الهوية الإسلامية للمغتربين وأخلاقهم وأصالتهم، تعبيرا حقيقيا عن فئة من المجتمع قلما تجد من يكترث لمشاكلها في هذا العصر، وسط كل هذا الزخم من القصص والروايات البذيئة والأدب الهابط الذي يعتمد على صدم القارئ بأفكار جديدة لا عهد له بها، أو يخاطب غريزته، أو يمرر بين السطور أفكارا ملغومة تخرب النفس والمجتمع، أو يركب موجة الموضة في سبيل الشهرة والربح السريع.

 

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