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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / فنون وآداب / أفلام / “النمر الأسود”.. أن تحارب العنصرية بالعنصرية

“النمر الأسود”.. أن تحارب العنصرية بالعنصرية

عمار شلبي

مدون وباحث ثقافي

 

“عنصري يحارب العنصرية بمزيد من العنصرية”.. هكذا باختصار يمكن توصيف ما فعله فيلم “بلاك بانثر” (النمر الأسود)، الذي يتناول قصة أحد الأبطال الأفارقة الخارقين، والذي تنتجه شركة “مارفل” التي تتولى تقديم أفلامٍ تتناول أبطالها الخارقين الذين يظهرون في قصصها المصورة،  الذين -لصدفة ما- يأتون دائما من أصحاب البشرة البيضاء، التي تهيمن على أدوار البطولة، بينما تُسند أدوار الشخصيات المُساعِدة إلى أشخاصٍ سود البشرة.

“مارفل” متهمة بالعنصرية، فما الحل إذن؟ قررت الشركة إصدار فيلمها “النمر الأسود” ليصدِّر أول بطل خارق أسود.. يبدو ذلك جميلا، لكن الصدق حين يغيب، تخرج الأعمال النهائية مشوهة، وغارقة في العنصرية ذاتها، لكن بصورة أكثر اختلافا وأعمق تأثيرا.

إذا كنت من متابعي “مارفل” فأنت تعرف أن أبطالها الخارقين يجوبون العالم ويحاربون الأشرار في كل مكان على الأرض، بل حتى في الفضاء والعوالم الموازية، إلا أن بطلنا “الأسود” لا يغادر بلدته الأفريقية أبدا، ويأتي إليه الأشرار حتى لا يلوث العالم الأبيض الجميل بطلَّته السوداء القاتمة.

جميع الممثلين في العمل سود البشرة، حتى أصحاب الأدوار الثانوية المهملة، كأنها قصة مغلقة عن عالم موازِ لا يختلط فيه الأبيض بالأسود، باختصار: النمر الأسود بطل عظيم في عالم السود، لكنه لا شيء أكثر من ذلك.

تفاصيل الشخصيات

تضمن الفيلم إشارات عنصرية إلى قضية اللاجئين والموقف منها – المصدر

اختارت الشركة أن يحمل الفيلم اسم شخصية ملكٍ أفريقي يُدعى “تي تشالا”، يجسد دوره الممثل تشادويك بوزمان. ويحظى هذا الملك بقوةٍ وسرعةٍ مذهلتيْن بفضل جرعةٍ من دواءٍ سحري ورداءٍ مدرع يغطي جسده بالكامل.

وتدور أحداث “النمر الأسود” في “واكاندا”، وهي دولةٌ أفريقية مفترضة تشكل مسقط رأس البطل. وكما نعلم من مقدمة تمهيدية نُفذت بأسلوب الرسوم المتحركة، فإن هذه الدولة شُيّدتْ على جبلٍ من معدنٍ فريد الخصائص، ويُطلق عليه اسم “فايبرانيوم”.

كما تشارك في “النمر الأسود” الممثلة داناي غوريرا مُجسدةً شخصية الحارس الشخصي لـ”تي تشالا”، وأنغيلا باسيت التي تؤدي دور والدته، جنباً إلى جنب مع لوتيشا رايت، التي تسرق الأضواء في مشاهدها من الممثلين الآخرين، عبر تجسيدها لشخصية الشقيقة للبطل، التي تجري أبحاثاً بشأن الأسلحة.

كما يؤدي “دانييل كالويا” بطل فيلم “غيت أوت” (اخرج من هنا)، دور المسؤول عن الأمن الداخلي في “واكاندا”، وكذلك فورست ويتيكِر الذي يجسد شخصية المرشد الروحي لـ”تي تشالا”.

العنصرية من جديد

تضمن العمل عددا كبيرا من الشخصيات النسائية – المصدر

مخرجه رايان كوغلر -الذي شارك أيضا في كتابة السيناريو- رأى أن سواد بشرة البطل كفاية جدا لإثبات عدم عنصرية الشركة، وأنه ما من حاجة لكسر أي “قواعد” أخرى للبطولة البيضاء، فلا داعي مثلا لأن يحيط البطل “تي تشالا” بممثلين مساعدين بيض البشرة، ويجعله يحارب وحوشاً على الأراضي الأميركية مثلا كما جرت العادة في أعمال هوليود.

لكن ذلك لم يحدث، فقد كان لدى كوغلر وفريقه رؤيةٌ أكثر راديكالية، فبداية، تدور أحداث “النمر الأسود” في “واكاندا”، الدولةٌ الأفريقية المفترضة التي تشكل مسقط رأس البطل. والتي بفضل معدن الـ”فايبرانيوم” تمكنت من تحقيق قفزاتٍ تكنولوجية هائلة، وليس بسواعد أبنائها أو تقدمهم العلمي!.

ورغم هذه القفزة التكنولوجية، فإنها تأتي ليس على نحوٍ أكثر تقدماً من تلك القفزات التي حققتها شخصياتٌ خيالية أخرى تنتمي إلى عالم البيض في شركة “مارفل يونيفيرس” للإنتاج السينمائي، مثل شخصيتيْ توني ستارك، وبروس بانر.

أما فريق العمل، فجميع أبطاله السود شاركوا في أعمال سابقة كتجار مخدرات أو رجال عصابات، وهنا يمكنك أن تسأل نفسك ثانيةً عن آخر مرة شاهدت فيلماً أميركياً، يضم كل هذا العدد من الممثلين سود البشرة، ممن لا يوجد منهم من أُسْنِدَ إليه دور أحد رجال العصابات، أو مدمني الكوكايين؟

بلد متخلف

والأكثر غرابة، أن الشركة نفسها التي سبق وأنتجت فيلما مثل “كابتن أميركا”، جعلت جميع الأعداء الأشرار من خارج البلاد، بينما في فيلم “النمر الأسود” سرعان ما تضمنت أحداثه حربًا أهلية طاحنة أفرزت العديد من الأعداء الأشرار.

ففي الفليم، نجد الملك الشاب يواجه تحديات، ولكن ليس من العالم الأوروبي- الأميركي، أو حتى الفضاء الخارجي، بل من داخل مملكته، من القبائل المنافسة، ومن قبل ابن عمه الشرير، وهي تحديات تتجلى في أقصى أشكال العنف، فهناك الشرير الذي يحاول السيطرة على المملكة لكي يعلن الحرب على باقي العالم بغرض التوسع.

بطولة مفرغة

الأشد عنصرية، أن المرء يتوقع عندما يُقدم فيلمُ شخصية بطل خارق أن تُوضع على لسان هذا البطل جُمَلٌ حوارية بارعة وذكية، وأن تكون لديه بعض الخطط المبتكرة، وأن يجترح أعمالاً تجعلك لا تكاد تلتقط أنفاسك خلال المشاهدة؛ باختصار أن يؤدي أي شيء يمكن أن يُسبب الهوس به كبطلٍ أو بطلٍ خارق في واقع الأمر.

لكن “النمر الأسود” يبدو أقرب هنا إلى “نمرٍ أجوف”. فمع كل القدرات التي يتحلى بها البطل، ويستمدها من الأدوات والآلات التي تبتكرها شقيقته، والعلاجات العشبية التي يُحضِّرها مرشده، نجده – وبشكل يفاجئنا – شخصا سلبيا كثير الثرثرة بشأن أمورٍ مملة. كما نراه وقد اعتاد – وبشكلٍ أكثر من اللازم – خسارة المعارك وترك الأشرار يفرون بحياتهم.

رابط يوتيوب للعمل (هنا)

 

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