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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / أخبار / تقارير ودراسات / الحركات الاجتماعية في مصر بعد 2011 من تصاعد الدور إلى تراجع المكانة

الحركات الاجتماعية في مصر بعد 2011 من تصاعد الدور إلى تراجع المكانة

 

عليا الرفاعي- كاتبة سياسية

 

في وقت تراجع فيه دور الحركات الشبابية في المنطقة العربية بعد بلوغه ذروة عالية إثر ثورات الربيع العربي، تقوم هذه الدراسة التي نشرها “مركز إدراك للدراسات والاستشارات”(1) للباحث “محمود جمال”(2) بعنوان “الحركات الاجتماعية في مصر بعد 2011 – من تصاعد الدور إلى تراجع المكانة“، على رصد تطور ظاهرة الحركات الاجتماعية في مصر خاصة فيما يتعلق بانفتاح المجال العام وتصاعد دورها في خضم أحداث 25 يناير 2011، ثم تراجع مكانتها وتحولها إلى الطابع العنيف في ضوء محاولات إغلاق المجال العام منذ عزل الرئيس محمد مرسي يوليو/تموز 2013.

وبزغ دور الحركات الاجتماعية ولاسيما الشبابية في الساحة السياسة المصرية منذ تأسيس حركة كفاية 2004 وما تبعها من تأسيس حركات مماثلة كان لها الدور الأكبر في التعبئة والحشد لأحداث ثورة 25 يناير 2011 مثل “حركة شباب 6 أبريل”، وحركة “كلنا خالد سعيد” التي قامت بدور كبير في التعبئة الإلكترونية خلال الأحداث. امتد تأثير هذه الظاهرة فيما بعد بشكلٍ أكثر فاعلية وتنظيمًا فيما تلا يناير 2011، وتنوع دورها ما بين السياسي، والاجتماعي، والتثقيفي، والتعبوي؛ سواءً كان تعبويًا سلميًا عقب تنحي الرئيس الأسبق مبارك في 18 فبراير 2011، أو تعبويًا عنيفًا عقب عزل الرئيس الأسبق محمد مرسي في 3 يوليو/تموز 2013؛ حيث اكتسبت هذه الحركات تأثيرها وتمدد دورها كنتيجة لتراجع دور الأحزاب التقليدية في فترة ما قبل الثورة؛ وبات يُنظَر لها على أنها البديل الديمقراطي للأحزاب والكيانات التقليدية التي كانت تمارس دوراً ديكورياً لتجميل صورة نظام الرئيس الأسبق مبارك، فيما تمدد دور الحركات العنيفة بعد عزل مرسي نتيجة لحالة إغلاق المجال العام أمام الفاعلية السياسية، التي تراجعت بعد صدور القانون رقم (107) لسنة 2013 المتعلق بتنظيم التظاهرات والاجتماعات العامة، والذي تسبب في تقييد حرية العديد من الناشطين والقادة الشباب مثل احمد دومة، وعلاء عبد الفتاح، وأحمد ماهر مؤسس حركة 6 أبريل وغيرهم، بالإضافة إلى تصاعد موجة القمع السياسي خاصة بعد فض اعتصامي رابعة العدوية والنهضة في أغسطس/آب 2013.

تقوم هذه الورقة على دراسة تطور ظاهرة الحركات الاجتماعية في مصر خاصة فيما يتعلق بانفتاح المجال العام وتصاعد دورها في خضم أحداث 25 يناير 2011، ثم تراجع مكانتها وتحولها إلى الطابع العنيف في ضوء محاولات إغلاق المجال العام منذ عزل الرئيس محمد مرسي يوليو/تموز 2013. في هذا السياق، تتطرق الورقة إلى دراسة ثلاثة جوانب رئيسة؛ حيث يتناول الجانب الأول قراءة حول الإطار النظري المتعلق بالحركات الاجتماعية بغرض توظيفه لفهم الحالة المصرية وتحولاتها السياسية المختلفة. ويتصل الجانب الثاني بدراسة حالة التغيير السلمي وانفتاح المجال العام بعد 2011 وتأثيراته على تطور الفاعلية السياسية السلمية للحركات الاجتماعية في مصر.بينما يتناول الجانب الثالث دراسة محاولات تصفية هذه الحركات عن طريق الدعاية السلبية، وحتى صدور قانون 107 بشأن التظاهر، ثم حالة التغيير العنيف بعد انغلاق المجال العام عقب عزل مرسي 2013 وانعكاساته على تغذية الحركات ذات الطابع العنيف مثل: المقاومة الشعبية، وتنظيم أجناد مصر، والعقاب الثوري، وحركة سواعد مصر (حسم)، وغيرها.

 

‍• للتحميل:

لقراءة المادة كاملةً وتحميلها من هنا.

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الهوامش:

(1) مركز إدراك للدراسات والاستشارات: مؤسسة دراسات واستشارات مستقلة، تأسست في سورية/حلب، في عام ٢٠١٤م، يُعنى المركز بالدراسات الاستراتيجية واستشراف المستقبل في منطقة الشرق الأوسط، ويعطي اهتماماً خاصاً بالقضية السورية، وتطورات الأحداث فيها، وكل ما يرتبط بذلك من أوضاع عربية ودولية.

(2)محمود جمال: باحث في العلوم السياسية، خاصة قضايا التحول الديمقراطي وسوسيولوجيا الدين. حصل على درجة الماجستير في العلوم الاجتماعية والإنسانية في موضوع “سياسات إدارة المساجد والخطاب الديني: دراسة الحضور السياسي في الفضاء الديني بمصر بعد ٢٠١١، له العديد من الأبحاث المنشورة.

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