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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / الموسوعة / هيئات / حلف شمال الأطلسي.. جيش أوروبا وأميركا الرسمي

حلف شمال الأطلسي.. جيش أوروبا وأميركا الرسمي

 

لحظةالتوقيع على اتفاقيةإنشاء الحلف بواشنطن يوم 4 أبريل 1949
مصدر الصورة: موقع المعرفة

 

مصطفى أحمد رضا – كاتب ومحلل إخباري

لا أحد يعرف على وجه الدقة ما الميزة المهمة في أن يكون وقوع دولتك في شمال المحيط الأطلسي سببا في الانضمام إلى تحالف يقوم على هذه النقطة تحديدا.. لكن الواضح أن أصحاب قرار إنشاء التحالف كانوا يبحثون عن مزية تمنع دخول الاتحاد السوفيتي ودول الشرق الأوسط وأفريقيا كأعضاء بتحالفهم السامي، فلم يجدوا غير هذه المزية الفريدة لإعلان حلفهم.. حلف شمال الأطلسي.

 

منظمة حلف شمال الأطلسي (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ويُعرف اختصاراً الناتو (NATO)، هي منظمة تأسست عام 1949 بناءً على معاهدة شمال الأطلسي التي تم التوقيع عليها في واشنطن في 4 أبريل سنة 1949، لتشكيل نظام للدفاع الجماعي تتفق فيه الدول الأعضاء على الدفاع المتبادل رداً على أي هجوم من قبل أطراف خارجية.

ويتكون الناتو من 29 بلدًا يتمتعون بصفة “عضو مستقل” في جميع أنحاء أمريكا الشمالية وأوروبا، وتشارك 21 دولة أخرى في برنامج الشراكة من أجل السلام التابع لمنظمة حلف شمال الأطلسي، مع مشاركة 15 بلدا آخر في برامج الحوار المؤسسي.

وتضم قائمة الأعضاء كلاً من ألبانيا وبلجيكا وبلغاريا وكندا وكرواتيا والتشيك والدنمارك وإستونيا وفرنسا وألمانيا واليونان والمجر وآيسلندا وإيطاليا ولاتفيا ولتوانيا ولوكسمبورجوهولندا والنرويج وبولندا والبرتغال ورومانيا وسلوفاكيا وسلوفنيا وإسبانيا وتركيا والمملكة المتحدة والولايات المتحدة والجبل الأسود.

ثلاثة من أعضاء الناتو (الولايات المتحدة وفرنسا والمملكة المتحدة) من الأعضاء الدائمين بمجلس الأمن الدولي، ويتمتعون بحق الفيتو، وهم رسميًا دول حائزة للأسلحة النووية. وآخر دولة أُضيفت إلى الناتو هي الجبل الأسود في 5 يونيو 2017. فيما يعترف الحلف حاليا بالبوسنة والهرسك وجورجيا ومقدونيا كأعضاء طموحين.

ويقع المقر الرئيس للناتو في منطقة هارين بالعاصمة البلجيكية بروكسل، وتم تخصيص مقر لعمليات قيادة الحلفاء يقع بالقرب من مدينة مونس البلجيكية.

ويضم الحلف عدة مجالس داخلية فيما يعرف بـ”المجلس البرلماني للناتو”، ومن أهم اللجان الأساسية فيه: الشؤون السياسية، والتخطيط الدفاعي، وشؤون الدفاع النووي، والتخطيط الاقتصادي، والتمحيص الدفاعي، والبنيان التنظيمي، وتخطيط الطوارئ المدنية، والإعلام والدعاية، والموازنة المدنية والعسكرية، والتنسيق الجوي.

 

مراحل الصعود

لم يكن حلف شمال الأطلسي منذ تأسيسه سوى منظمة سياسية جامعة لخصوم الاتحاد السوفيتي، إلى أن حلَّت الحرب الكوريَّة (حرب أهلية وقعت في شبه الجزيرة الكورية بين عامي 1950-1953) التي حرَّكت أعضاء هذا التنظيم عسكريا للمرة الأولى، ليتم بناء هيكل عسكري متكامل تحت إشراف اثنين من القادة الأمريكيين، لكنه لم ينفذ أية عمليات عسكرية.

وأدى مسار الحرب الباردة إلى تنافس حلف الناتو مع حلف وارسو (منظمة عسكرية سابقة لدول أوروبا الوسطى والشرقية الشيوعية أسست عام 1955 م)، إلى أن سقط جدار برلين في ألمانيا عام 1989، ليجري الناتو أول تدخلاته العسكرية في البوسنة من 1992 إلى 1995 ثم في وقت لاحق يوغوسلافيا في عام 1999.

وقد سعت المنظمة إلى تحسين العلاقات مع بلدان حلف وارسو السابقة إثر سقوط الاتحاد السوفيتي وانهيار التحالف الروسي، وانضم العديد من بلدان أوروبا الشرقية إلى الناتو في عامي 1999 و 2004.

 

مهمات خارجية

الاستعانة بالمنظمة عسكريا للمرة الأولى -والوحيدة- وقعت بعد أحداث الحادي عشر من سبتمبر 2001، التي تم بعدها نشر القوات في أفغانستان تحت قيادة إيساف التابع للناتو.

وقد قامت المنظمة بشغل مجموعة من الأدوار الإضافية منذ ذلك الحين، بما في ذلك إرسال مدربين إلى العراق والمساعدة في عمليات مكافحة القرصنة. وفي عام 2011 قامت بفرض منطقة حظر جوي فوق ليبيا وفقا لقرار مجلس الأمن التابع للأمم المتحدة رقم 1973.

وبشكل عام، فإن الحلف الآن تحول إلى ما يمكن وصفه بجيش أوروبا وأميركا المشترك، وتتركز عملياته في منقطة الشرق الأوسط، حيث توظفه الولايات المتحدة في صراعاتها التي تصبغها بالصبغة الدولية بمشاركة قوات الناتو، من بينها عمليات إغارة على حقوق الشعوب وسيادة الأوطان، ولا يزال احتلال قوات الناتو لأفغانستان، وتدخلاتها في العراق وليبيا قائمًا حتى اللحظة.

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