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الخميس , فبراير 21 2019
الرئيسية / فنون وآداب / قصص وروايات / حديث الجنود.. التاريخ يقف على قدميه من جديد

حديث الجنود.. التاريخ يقف على قدميه من جديد

محمد شلبي – كاتب في القسم الفني

بعض المحطات في الحياة لا يُمكن للإنسان أن يتخطاها، وإذا كان هذا الإنسان موهوبًا، فقد نالت تلك المحطة الخلود.. لأنه مهما طال الزمن، سيعود هذا الموهوب إلى ذكرياته يومًا، ليعيد الأحداث حية من جديد، ويتركها في صفحة واضحة تدب فيها الحياة إلى نهاية الزمان.

هذا في الواقع ما حدث عام 1986، حين اقتحم الجيش الأردني جامعة اليرموك لوأد الاحتجاجات الطلابية المشتعلة ضد الأحكام العرفية التي كانت مطبقة في الأردن في ذلك الوقت.. وبين فزع الطلاب وصرخات الطالبات، كان الطالب الشاب أيمن العتوم حاضرًا بذاكرته وسط غبار مركبات الجيش التي ملأت المكان.

تمر الأعوام، وأيمن العتوم لا ينسى الواقعة، ويسعى حثيثًا لتوثيق فعالياتها حتى لا تطالها يد النسيان أو التحريف، فيقول: “كلما هممتُ بنشر هذه الذكريات قفز الخوف والرعب إلى من جديد قادمين من تلك الأحداث الغابرة”.

استمر عمل العتوم التوثيقي في صمت، حتى جاء عام 2014، ليتوج  سعيه بإصدار رواية حديث الجنود في 63 فصل و 470 صفحة عن المؤسسة العربية للدراسات والنشر في لبنان، وقد صدر من الرواية ثلاث طبعات حتى الآن.

 

تعريف بالمؤلف

ولد الشاعر والروائي الأردني أيمن علي حسين العتوم، في الـ 2 مارس عام 1972، بمنطقة جرش بالأردن، التحق بجامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا الأردنية ليتحصل على بكالوريوس الهندسة المدنية فيها عام 1997 وفي عام 1999 تخرّج في جامعة اليرموك بشهادة بكالوريوس لغة عربية، ثمّ التحق بالجامعة الأردنية ليُكمل مرحلة الدراسات العليا في اللغة العربية وحصل على شهادتي الماجستير والدكتوراة في اللغة العربية تخصص نَحو ولغة عامي 2004 و 2007.

 

اشتُهر العتوم بروايته يا صاحبي السجن التي صدرت عام 2012 وتعبّر عن تجربة شخصيّة للكاتب في السجون الأردنية خلال عامَي 1996 و 1997 كمعتقل سياسي، ورواية “حديث الجنود”، و”يسمعون حسيسها“.. كما أن له دواوين شعريّة عديدة أحدثها ديوان “خذني إلى المسجد الأقصى”.

 

حديث الجنود

“الوطن ليس جغرافيا، إنّه قيمة، كالحبّ والكرامة والفِداء والإباء والعدل”.. هكذا تنطلق الرواية لتتناول أحداث اقتحام قوات الأمن الأردنية والجيش لجامعة اليرموك عام 1986 بعد احتجاجات طلابية غير مسبوقة في الجامعة.

سلط العتوم في روايته الضوء على أسباب تلك الاحتجاجات ومآلاتها في ظل الأحكام العرفية التي كانت مطبقة في الأردن في ذلك الوقت، موضحًا دور تيارت القوى اليسارية وتيار الاخوان المسلمين في القضية في سياق أدبي فني.

وكان طلبة الجامعة الاردنية، قد انتفضوا عام 1978 ضد القرارات العرفية العسكرية الحاكمة للبلاد، وتزامنت مع توقيع معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية.

شكلت “انتفاضة اليرموك” حالة خاصة وفريدة في تاريخ الحركة الطلابية، وربما في تاريخ بعض الحركات السياسية وخاصة “جماعة الإخوان المسلمين”، فقد كانت “ثورة اليرموك” بداية عودة الجماعة إلى العمل الجماهيري والاحتجاجات بعد عقود طويلة من العمل الدعوي المنفرد.

استمرت انتفاضة الطلاب أحد عشر يومًا، انتهت بقمع شديد، اعتقالات، ضرب مبرح، تحقيق، فصل كلي، فصل جزئي، حرمان من المنح، ثم طويت صفحة هذه الانتفاضة، ولم يكتب عنها الكثير، مع أن قمعها شكّل بداية الانحدار في الوسط الطلابي الأردني.

 

ردود الأفعال

لاقت الرواية استحسان الجمهور مع إطلاقها في لبنان، ونفذت جميع نسخ الطبعة الأولى للرواية، ليبدأ صداها في الارتفاع حتى لامس مسامع الأجهزة الأمنية الأردنية، التي سرعان ما اتخذت موقفًا منها تجلى في اعتقال الكاتب وإحالته للقضاء على خلفية ما وصفته بإهانة السلطات الأمنية بالرواية.

كما منعت دائرة المطبوعات الأردنية من تداول وتوزيع الرواية، بحجة خضوع العتوم للمحاكمة الجارية أمام القضاء بقضية “تتعلق بالرواية موضوع الحظر”. وقال رئيس هيئة الإعلام أمجد القاضي إن دائرة المطبوعات التابعة للهيئة طلبت من الناشر عدم توزيع الطبعة الثانية إلى أن يبت القضاء في المخالفات التي احتوتها، “إلى حين صدور حكم قضائي بشأنها من قبل محكمة مختصة بقضايا المطبوعات”.

أما الكاتب، فوصف ما يجري بأنه منع لرواية أدبية من التداول، منبها إلى أن الطبعة الأولى نفدت من الأسواق، مما يعني عمليا أن الرواية ممنوعة الآن في الأردن رغم السماح بتداولها في دول عربية.

 

نقد الرواية

يعد تناوُل التاريخ في شكل رواية، واحدًا من أصعب أشكال الكتابة، لأن هذا الأمر محفوف بمخاطر ليس أقلها الوقوع في شَرك تحول النص من رواية لها بناؤها وحبكتها ونقطة ذورتها إلى نص يحكي تاريخًا شخصياته لا ملامح لها، ولا علاقة تربط القارئ بها سوى كونها صانعة هذا التاريخ أو راويته.

لكن العتوم أجاد تجاوز مغامرة التوثيق بالرواية، مستثمرًا لغته العربية الثرية واستشهاداته الواسعة، وإن لم تخل بعض مقاطع الرواية من الحشو غير المفيد والتوصيفات التي قد تجبر القارئ على تجاوز فقرات وربما صفحات ليصل إلى الخطوة التالية في الأحداث.

يلاحظ بوضوح أيضا غياب المرأة بشكل شبه تام عن الحضور في الرواية، التي لم نجد فيها المرأة سوى مرتين، المرّة الأولى في (نعيمة) المرأة التي استشهد زوجها على ثرى فلسطين وكانت اُماً بديلةً لأولئك الذين كانوا يجتمعون على سطح بيتها للإعداد للثورة. وقد كانت شخصيتها ذات بعد واحد، مُتَوقعة السلوك، ممتلئة بالحكمة، مفوهة اللغة من دون أن نعرف من أين لها كل هذه الحكمة وهذه العبقرية. والمرأة الثانية كانت (سها) والتي فاجأنا ذكرها في الصفحات المئة الأخيرة، والتي تحولت فجأة إلى شخصية قيادية من دون أن نعرف عنها أي شيء، ومن دون أن يتم ذكرها في أول 300 صفحة.

لكن في النهاية، خرجت رواية العتوم في قالب فني إبداعي متميز، ويحمد له تصديه لتوثيق وقائع تلك الفترة المهملة على أهميتها من تاريخ العمل الطلابي العربي والأردني، خاصةً وأن من قاموا بارتكاب هذه الفاجعة لم تتم معاقبتهم بل على العكس؛ فقد رُقيّ من أدخل الجيش وقوات البادية على طلابٍ عزّلٍ، من منصب رئيس جامعة ليصبح لاحقاً رئيس وزراء. ولكن قسوة الحدث الذي تقُصه علينا الرواية وأهميته ليست عذراً لتجاهل التقنيات التي تجعل من الرواية رواية، وليست مبرراً للتساهل مع نص يفترض بها السعي نحو الخلود.

 

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